Bilateral Trade Agreements China

Among the agreements already negotiated are the main RTA agreements with ASEAN and Hong Kong/Macao. The agreements between Hong Kong and Macau are remarkable in several areas. A little further down the pipeline are possible agreements with India, South Korea and a China-Japan-Korea agreement. As shown in Table 1, China has 12 rta partners (and 33 different countries or regions) with which 11 agreements have already been signed. These 12 partners are the Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN), Pakistan, Chile, New Zealand, Singapore, Peru, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Costa Rica, Iceland and Switzerland. China`s IAEs, which are being negotiated or being considered, mainly include major potential partners: the United States, TPP (12 trans-Pacific partner countries), RCEP (13 Asian partners and Australia and New Zealand oceania), Japan, Korea and India. Unlike the cases of the US and the EU, these agreements do not follow one model agreement, but differ considerably from another and are partly an attempt to adapt the agreements to previous partnership agreements. There are currently 12 agreements concluded, of which 6 are under negotiation and four more are envisaged. These essentially end in smaller countries. Those that are in perspective are located in important commercial areas (United States, Japan, Korea and India).

All are motivated in part by China`s export needs to foster the continued growth of the export lead, but other elements are included, including the use of regional agreements to compensate for undesirable elements of multilateral agreements (such as non-market economy labelling) and the attempt to create an Asian trade node through rta. This is one of the reasons why Singapore is becoming a regional investment hub in China and Asia and is receiving more and more Chinese foreign investment going in the opposite direction – to Singapore and for reinvestments throughout Asia. . . .